Wednesday, December 31, 2014

New Year's Cookies: No-Bake Chocolate Fingers

NO-BAKE CHOCOLATE FINGERS, from Canadian Living's Family Cookbook


1 pkg (350 to 400 g) digestive biscuits (For those of you who can't get digestive biscuits, you can substitute 1-3/4 cup graham cracker crumbs.)
½ cup finely chopped nuts (we use hazelnuts)
½ cup butter
½ cup granulated sugar
½ cup sifted unsweetened cocoa powder

1 Tbsp instant coffee granules
1 Tbsp hot water

2 eggs, beaten
2 tsp vanilla

1 cup semisweet chocolate chips
2 Tbsp shortening or possibly butter or cream cheese (I do not usually have shortening around so I have tried other things)

WHITE CHOCOLATE DRIZZLE (our addition): A bit of white chocolate: melt and add to the top after the rest is set. NOTE: You do not need to use as much as we did--a little drizzle is good. More than that makes them hard to cut.


Line 8-inch square pan with waxed or parchment paper, leaving enough paper hanging over the edges for easy removal later.

1. Using food processor or rolling pin, crush biscuits until in fine crumbs (or use a food processor). Transfer to bowl and add nuts.

2. In saucepan or bowl set over simmering water: melt butter; whisk in sugar and cocoa.

3. Dissolve coffee in hot water; add to pan and cook over simmering water, whisking for 1 minute or until thickened and sugar is dissolved.

4. Whisk in eggs and vanilla; cook, whisking, for 4-5 minutes or until thickened slightly. Remove from heat.

5. With fork, stir in crumb mixture. Mix well.

6. Press firmly into prepared pan (lined with wax paper). Cover and refrigerate until cool, about 1 hour.

GLAZE: (don’t prepare this until base is cooled and ready)

1. In saucepan over simmering water (or microwave), stir chocolate with shortening until melted and smooth.

2. Pour over base, spreading evenly.

3. Cover and refrigerate until set.

4. White Chocolate Drizzle, optional: melt and drizzle. Let set before cutting.

5. Using waxed paper as handles, lift square from pan. Cut carefully into small squares or fingers (running hot water over the knife helps).

6. Keep covered in refrigerator. These will keep for several days.
Previously posted here.

Monday, December 29, 2014

What's for dessert? Cran-raspberry pie.

Today's made-up-as-we-go dessert recipe: Cran-Raspberry Pie.  I did not make the filling very sweet; the only extra sweetener in the fruit part was the cranberry sauce. If you find that too tart, you could add sugar or other sweetener.


Unbaked pastry to fill a 10-inch pie plate (I used pat-in pastry).  If your dish is smaller, you can adjust the amounts of filling.

1 cup frozen cranberries
Frozen raspberries to fill up the crust
Half a can of wholeberry cranberry sauce, mixed with 1 tbsp. cornstarch, spread over the fruit in the crust

1/2 cup flour
1/2 cup sugar
1 cup quick oats
1/2 cup oil or choice of other fat

Preheat oven to 425 degrees. Fill crust with fruit and cranberry sauce. Combine flour, sugar, and oats, and stir in oil to make crumbs. Top pie with crumbs, right to the edges.  Bake 10 minutes at 425 degrees, then turn down to 350 degrees and continue baking about 40 minutes or until fruit is cooked and topping is golden but not too brown.  Whipped cream is nice on top, but it would be fine alone too.

Flea market finds (books)

From a nearby antiques mall, today:
The Avion My Uncle Flew, by Cyrus Fisher. A 1990's Scholastic printing.
The Golden Legend, by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. Used in Charlotte Mason's schools.This copy is not in very good shape; the spine is cracked inside. But I think the lady on the cover is delightful.

Saturday, December 27, 2014

What's for supper? Use up your noodles

Tonight's dinner menu:

Pasta and sauce, meat optional
Raw vegetables
Garlic bread, made from homemade whole wheat bread, melted butter, garlic powder, chopped parsley

Ice cream
Tonight's Pasta Recipe:

Part of a package of noodles; part of a package of whole grain spirals
One can pasta sauce, a bit of leftover tomato paste
Chopped mushrooms, yellow peppers, and grape tomatoes
Olive oil for the skillet
1 pound ground beef
Parmesan cheese for sprinkling

Warm a spoonful of olive oil in a large skillet. Add chopped vegetables and tomatoes, and simmer a few minutes.  In another pan, brown and drain a pound of ground beef.  Add half the can of pasta sauce to each pan, and some tomato paste to the vegetable pan.  Simmer while you cook a potful of mixed pasta and noodles because you forgot to buy spaghetti.  Let everyone mix and match sauces as they want.

Friday, December 26, 2014

Quote for the Day, from John Donne: No More Mercy

John Donne, from Sermon preached on the Evening of Christmas Day, 1624. 
One of the most convenient hieroglyphics of God is a circle, and a circle is endless; whom God loves, he loves to the end; and not only to their own end, to their death, but to his end, and his end is, that he might love them still.... God is thy portion, says David; David does not speak so narrowly, so penuriously, as to say, God hath given thee thy portion, and thou must look for no more; but, God is thy portion, and as long as he is God, he hath more to give, and as long as thou art his, thou hast more to receive.... The sun is not weary with six thousand years shining; God cannot be weary of doing good; and therefore never say, God hath given me these and these temporal things, and I have scattered them wastefully, surely he will give me no more; these and these spiritual graces, and I have neglected them, abused them, surely he will give me no more.... God is a circle himself, and he will make thee one; go not thou about to square either circle, to bring that which is equal in itself to angles and corners, into dark and sad suspicions of God, or of thyself, that God can give, or that thou canst receive, no more mercy than thou hast had already.

Do crocheters make New Year's resolutions?

This post lists New Year's resolutions for crocheters.  They're not the funny sort, e.g. I won't try four times in a row to make a mitten pattern that obviously has something wrong with it before unravelling all the attempts and making something else. But you might find them useful anyway.

As for me, I don't have any crocheting resolutions except not to crochet anything in particular for about the next six months.

P.S. The crafts page is now okay for peeking.

Friday, December 19, 2014

Quote for the day: Father Tim likes Marcus Aurelius

In Jan Karon's novel Shepherds Abiding, Father Tim quotes Marcus Aurelius to an elderly friend:
“The first rule is to keep an untroubled spirit. The second is to look things in the face and know them for what they are.” ― Marcus Aurelius, Meditations 
Here are a few others 

“Reject your sense of injury and the injury itself disappears.” 

“How much more grievous are the consequences of anger than the causes of it.”

“The best revenge is not to be like your enemy.” 

“When another blames you or hates you, or people voice similar criticisms, go to their souls, penetrate inside and see what sort of people they are. You will realize that there is no need to be racked with anxiety that they should hold any particular opinion about you.” 

Wednesday, December 17, 2014

Quote for the day: from The Wind in the Willows

"The rapid nightfall of mid-December had quite beset the little village as they approached it on soft feet over a first thin fall of powdery snow. Little was visible but squares of a dusky orange-red on either side of the street, where the firelight or lamplight of each cottage overflowed through the casements into the dark world without....the two spectators, so far from home themselves, had something of wistfulness in their eyes as they watched a cat being stroked, a sleepy child picked up and huddled off to bed, or a tired man stretch and knock out his pipe on the end of a smouldering log...Then a gust of bitter wind took them in the back of the neck, a small sting of frozen sleet on the skin woke them as from a dream, and they knew their toes to be cold and their legs tired, and their own home distant a weary way....They plodded along steadily and silently, each of them thinking his own thoughts." ~~ Kenneth Grahame, "Dulce Domum," The Wind in the Willows

Monday, December 15, 2014

What we're singing in French: Voici Noël (Silent Night)

A Christmas carol for French class:

Voici Noël, ô douce nuit!
L'étoile est là, qui nous conduit: 
Allons donc tous, avec les mages, 
Porter à Jésus nos hommages
Car l'enfant nous est né,
Le Fils nous est donné! 

Voici Noël, ô quel beau jour! 
Jésus est né! quel grand amour!
C'est pour nous qu'il vient sur la terre, 
Qu'il prend sur lui notre misère. 
Un Sauveur nous est né, 
Le Fils nous est donné! 

Lydia's Grade Eight: In the week before Christmas comes

Lydia got quite a lot done over the past two weeks, but she managed not to read any science or not to do any composition.  On the other hand, she read all the assigned chapters of Don Quixote and Fierce Wars and Faithful Loves, so that's good.  These are the things left on the list for this week, but there are a lot of them, and the Apprentice is here, and there are things to make and so on, and I am not feeling all that disciplined myself, so we'll see what happens.

Bible Study
o 2 Samuel 10-13:20; Matt 17:19-18:14; Psalm 119:123-136; Proverbs 10:12-21
o 2 Samuel 13:21-15; Matt 18:15-19:15; Psalm 119:137-155; Proverbs 10:22-32

The Bible Through the Ages
o 10 pages/wk: Apostle to the Gentile World; Letter writing; Thessalonians, Galatians; Corinthians, Philippians

Celebrating the Christian Year
o  Look ahead to Epiphany on January 6th.

December hymns and carols: "Wake, Awake" (Nicolai); "All My Heart This Night Rejoices" (Gerhardt)

Reading and Writing Stuff
Commonplace Books, Copywork, and Recitations (Memory Work)
o  Copy passages from poetry, plays, and the other books read
o  Practice Scripture passage(s): (choose which you will memorize)
o  Practice poem(s):
o  Other memory work:

Narration (all subjects)
o  Oral narrations of readings
o  Reader's Journal: one page, twice a week, on any of your readings (choose which you will write about)
o  Keep Book of Centuries and/or other notebooks handy as you read or listen; make entries at the end
o Other kinds of narrations: dramatic, musical, artistic...

Write with the Best Vol. II
o  Unit 4: Persuasive Essays.  Day 1 (read "Common Sense" by Thomas Paine), 2 (look at definitions of essay, thesis statement)
o  Day 3 (reread Common Sense and look for arguments, main point, conclusion), Day 4 (consider topic and thesis statement for a persuasive essay)
o  Day 5 (5 Objectives), Day 6 (Begin writing essay)
Homework over Christmas break: continue working on your essay.  Look at Day 7, 8 etc. for guidance.

Read How to Read a Book, Chapter 10, Criticizing a Book Fairly (this is the point where the reader gets to talk back)
o   Read The Importance of Suspending Judgment, pages 142-145

Mathematics:  Mathematics: A Human Endeavor.  Chapter Three, Functions and Their Graphs

Lesson Four
o  Introductory problems
o  Functions with Parabolic Graphs, Set I, Questions 1-18 (workbook)
o  Functions with Parabolic Graphs,  Set II, Questions 1-16 (workbook)
o  Optional: Set III: the price of a pizza

Lesson Five
o  Introductory problems
o  More Functions with Curved Graphs, Set I, Questions 1-16 (workbook)
o  More Functions with Curved Graphs,  Set II, Questions 1-14 (workbook)
o  Optional: Set III

Lesson Six (you may not get to this before Christmas break)
o  Introductory problems
o  Interpolation and Extrapolation: Guessing Between and Beyond, Set I, Questions 1-13 (workbook)
o  Interpolation and Extrapolation: Guessing Between and Beyond,  Set II, Questions 1-15 (workbook)
o  Optional: Set III: racecars
o  Summary and Review, Set I, Questions 1-15 (workbook)
o  Summary and Review,  Set II, Questions 1-14 (workbook)
o  Further exploration, as time permits

A little more Picture Study:
o  Introduction to Albrecht Dürer (see references at the end of the Renaissance book from last term)
o  Dürer's woodcuts for Martin Luther's Christmas Book

Composer Study: Jean Sibelius - Finlandia. (Chapter in Modern Composers for Young People, by Gladys Burch.) From Wikipedia:  Finlandia, Op. 26 is a symphonic poem by the Finnish composer Jean Sibelius. It was written in 1899 and revised in 1900. The piece was composed for the Press Celebrations of 1899, a covert protest against increasing censorship from the Russian Empire, and was the last of seven pieces performed as an accompaniment to a tableau depicting episodes from Finnish history. A typical performance takes anywhere from 7½ to 9 minutes.

Handicrafts / practical skills
o  Make something decorative or useful for the holidays.
o  Help with holiday baking!
o  Make notes in your Enquire Within notebook.

Shakespeare: The Merchant of Venice, finish Act I.

Read Mythology by Edith Hamilton, ten pages/week.

Part One of Don Quixote:  (Christmas break homework: finish Part One)

Read History of English Literature
o  chapter 52 Bacon--New Ways of Wisdom.  "'I have read in books,' he wrote, 'that it is accounted a great bliss to have Leisure with Honour. That was never my fortune. For time was I had Honour without Leisure; and now I have Leisure without Honour. But my desire is now to have Leisure without Loitering.'"
o  chapter 53 Bacon--The Happy Island. (About Atlantis)

Read Rawley's Life of Francis Bacon (printout) (read this after the History of English Literature chapters)

Fun Christmas readaloud, maybe: Dorothy L. Sayers, "The Necklace of Pearls"

Read Journey to The Source of the Nile, by Sir Christopher Ondaatje
o  Read with Mom, pages 27-49 (Chapter One).  Follow on the map provided.

Science and Nature Readings
Keeping a Nature Journal
o  pages 90-91, seasonal changes in winter
o  page 92, "Seeing Signs of Winter"
o  page 97, "Combining observation and research"
o Spend time outdoors and make entries (written, drawn, lists) in your nature journal

Human Physiology and Health: Read Exploring the History of Medicine
o  Chapter 1, The First Physicians
o  Chapter 2, Medicine Goes Wrong. "If the corpse and the book don't agree, the error is in the corpse!"
o  Chapter 3: Fabric of the Body,  Andreas Vesalius
o  Chapter 4: Father of Modern Surgery, Ambroise Paré.  "I treated him. God healed him."
o  Chapter 5: The Living River (William Harvey). Supplement: "William Harvey and the Discovery of the Circulation of the Blood," by Thomas Henry Huxley (printout).
o  Chapter 6: The Invisible Kingdom (the microscope)

History Readings
Read The Story of Mankind
o 13. Meawhile the Indo-European tribe of the Hellenes...
o 14. The Greek cities that were really states

Read Canada: A New Land
o England on the Atlantic Coast (spread over two weeks), pages 160-178
o The Dutch Claimed the Hudson River District, pages 179-183

Read Churchill's The New World
o Chapter 11, pages 115-124, to "...Spanish match." (Guy Fawkes, James I, Charles, 1605)
o  pages 124-130, beginning 'In the midst of these turmoils,' ending with 'London greatly aided them in this.' (Mayflower; James's children betrothed; Jacobean Charles I crowned)
o  pages 130-138: last half of chapter 12.

French lessons, outlined elsewhere

Sunday, December 14, 2014

Quote for Advent III: Candles in the Wood

From Pilgrim's Inn (The Herb of Grace), by Elizabeth Goudge: on a day of Christmas-season miracles, nanny Jill and the five-year-old-twins look for holly in the woods.
"Will there be candles lit again in the wood as it's nearly Christmas?" asked Jerry.
"No, dear," said Jill. "There are never candles in the wood. There are lighted candles on Christmas trees, and in people's eyes when they're happy, but not in woods."
"There were the first day we came. We saw them when we went away."
"The sunset behind the trees, perhaps," said Jill....
(Later in the chapter)
As she sat on the rock she was not consciously thinking any more of the mystery of that moment when she had thought she saw the shining hoofprints on the path; she was watching a nuthatch running like a little mouse up the trunk of the tree opposite her, listening for the tap of its beak, feasting her eyes upon the glow of the holly berries above; yet because of it she saw a little more deeply into the beauty of bird and berry, heard a music in the tappings that she would not have heard before. And so it would be for the rest of her life. 
The music of the nuthatch was lost in the music of small feet running, and the twins were with her again, incredibly dirty, leaves in their hair, mud on their faces and their reefer coats, but with very pink cheeks and candle eyes....At the door of the Herb of Grace they paused and looked back. It was nearly dark now, with the stars pricking through. The last fires of sunset were still flaming low in the west and  a thousand candles had been lit upon the trees that stretched their shade deep beyond deep in the dark wood.  ~~ Elizabeth Goudge, Pilgrim's Inn (The Herb of Grace)

Thursday, December 11, 2014

Three things we didn't bake today

Chocolate-Covered Pretzel Christmas Trees.  Warning (tip): we used the red gel as recommended, but the dots stick to anything they touch--wax paper, other cookies, etc.  Another time I would probably use either candy sprinkles or some kind of icing that hardens better.
No-Bake Coconut-Date Squares, from Vegetarian Times Magazine
No-Bake Apricot Nuggets, from Canadian Living Magazine (not cut yet). Lydia's turn to make these, this year!

Yum: ambiguity in science writing.

Also called: the importance of commas. Especially when the original attempt at humour falls flat.

I read this to Lydia this morning, from Gary Parker's Exploring the World Around You:

"Consumers include plant eaters or herbivores....An organism that eats anything, such as a teenager, is an omnivore."

Lydia, understandably, looked at me in horror.

Even with the commas, that's a bit creepy, don't you think?

Advent hymn for today: Wake, Awake, For Night is Flying

Tuesday, December 09, 2014

Brown Sugar Buttons (shortbread)

Lydia and I made Brown Sugar Buttons today.  (Link updated 2022)

Crocheted Snowflake, and links to more patterns

Today's Frugal Tree Ornament: Yes, there are about as many crocheted snowflake patterns as there are...snowflakes. But this is one I found this year, and I like it because it uses plain old worsted-weight yarn, which I have, and because it's actually pretty simple: no picots or anything fancy, just six points. Each snowflake is meant to be one motif in a garland, but just one makes a good tree ornament.

Are you looking for last-minute things to crochet? Check out ; they keep adding "best of" posts with free patterns. There are links to the best ornaments and so on on All Free Crochet, on Craftsy, on Ravelry, and so on. 

Monday, December 08, 2014

Crocheted Mitten Ornament

Today's Frugal Tree Ornament: I had just enough red yarn left to make one doll-sized mitten (from this pattern at Cobbler's Cabin). I put a little craft stuffing into it, ran a ribbon through the top, and scavenged two mini pinecones, greenery and tiny balls (on picks) from an old (thrifted) candle ring.

Sunday, December 07, 2014

Lydia's Grade Eight: School plans for the week

Last Tuesday we got started with Term Two, but we also got interrupted by an unscheduled day-long field trip, an unavoidable church meeting, and a couple of other things I can't remember. This is also going to be a four-day week, but those days we will be doing some Serious School.
So: Bible. Composition. Math. Grammar. French. History. A little more Merchant of Venice, a little more Don Quixote, a few more paintings of the Nativity (part of art study). We will also be starting Journey to the Source of the Nile and the life of Jean Sibelius. And making Christmas cookies.
Those are our plans--how about yours?

My teddy, Grandpa's rocker

Family treasures at Christmas. My grandpa was born on a farm in what's now part of Toronto, at the turn of the last century, and he and his sister used this little chair as children. 

Wednesday, December 03, 2014

Dewey's Link of the Day: Paper Snowflakes

Have you ever checked out

Dewey says you should really have a look. Besides, you don't have to clean paper snowflakes out of your fur.

Tuesday, December 02, 2014

Dewey's Treehouse Christmas archives: where to look for things

Just so everybody knows: a while back I started a Christmas page, here; that isn't the family-keep-out page, it's a collection of links to our holiday recipes, some seasonal posts, book quizzes, a series about Christmas picture books, and Dewey's Favourite Christmas Songs (with You-tube links, most of which are still functioning). Anything from the past almost-decade, it's there.

The Twelve Days of French Lessons

We have three weeks of school in December, and out of fifteen school days we will probably get to French lessons on about twelve of them.  So: the twelve days of French.  Workbook pages refer to Complete French Smart 7 (Popular Book Company (Canada) Ltd.); supplements are online resources or books we have on hand.

Day 1 Page 40 Party vocabulary: food, amusements
1. Read the birthday party deal at the Mont Cascades Waterpark. Pretend the brochure is available only in French and your parent does not read French. Explain what is included in the package.
2. In the workbook, copy out the food words. How do you say "a slice of pizza?"
3. Use the white Larousse picture dictionary, page 40, the large illustration of a party. Locate the person wearing un chapeau de fête. Count les ballons (in French). Count les cadeaux. What are they planning to use for la musique? What are the words for birthday and party? How do you say "we are going to the party?" How do you say "throw a party," "let's start the party!" and "a surprise party?" (workbook page 44) How do you say "happy birthday?"
4. In the workbook, copy the party words.
For fun: L'anniversaire d'Arthur, part 1 (French version of a CD-Rom we used to have)

Day Page 41 Party vocabulary: supplies
1. Collect a pile of real objects: plates, cutlery, napkins, glasses. Play a sort of Simon Says with them: touche les assiettes, etc. (Notice that these are all plural forms.) Be able to name each object, then add the word "jetable"  (disposable) to each one. Then add a camera, batteries, and candles to the mix.   Practice the vocabulary.
2. In the workbook, copy the supply list. Review the meaning of "des."
3. Review: On the Mont Cascades website (from yesterday), find the menu page for school groups.  You need to choose the lunch option for your class trip.  Which one do you think most of the students will like?

Day 3 Page 42 Ce, cet, cette, ces
1. Read through the explanation of these words. Go back through the food list, adding "I like this --" or "I like these --" each time. Repeat, using "Do you like this --?"
2. Do the written exercises in the workbook.
3. Extra vocabulary: learn the expressions for "this year," "we can." Make up sentences in this pattern: "This year we can send a card (envoyer une carte) to Grandmother." "This Christmas we can send a present to Cousin Suzanne."
4. Begin learning the song "Voici Noël." 

Day 4 Page 43 Using ci and là
1. Review the work with ce, cette etc. Say that you would like that dress, those games, those disposable forks, that pizza.
2. Read through the use of ci and là (these ones here are mine, those ones  there are yours). Do the workbook exercise.
3. Read the completed exercise out loud for pronunciation practice.
4. Practice "Voici Noël."

Day Page 44 Fill in the blanks story (about a party) based on grammar lessons
1. Review expressions "à moi," "à toi." (mine, yours). Practice saying things like "This dress is mine," "That balloon is yours." There is another way to say "mine" (le mien): explanation here.
2. Add colour words to sentences, to say things like "This yellow dress is mine," "That blue balloon is yours."
3. Review ci and là, using the expressions for "these () are mine, these () are yours."
4. Review the pronunciation and meanings of the following list: ses; ces; sa; son; ce; c'est; cet; se; cent; sept; cette; ça. Some of them sound the same, but they mean different things.
5. Start working through the story, filling in the blanks.

Day Page 45 Sentences to translate
1. Finish the exercise on page 44 if necessary, or go through the answers as a review.
2.  Treat page 45 as a mini test: can you do it on your own? 3. Practice "Voici Noël."

Day Page 46 Time adverbs; next, last
1. Practice the time adverbs by answering questions such as "How often do you eat candy?" "How often do you brush your teeth?" Answer with "never," "rarely," sometimes," "often," "always."
Allez-vous souvent à la piscine? (Are you often going to the swimming pool?)
Oui, régulièrement (Yes, regularly)
Ah oui? À quelle fr
équence? (Really? How often?)
Deux fois par semaine (Twice a week)

2. That little section at the bottom of the page: these are adjectives, not adverbs. Practice combining them with words for week, year: last year, etc.
3. Chorus to sing: "Hier, aujourd'hui, demain." (Chorus book p.4--French version of "Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow")

Day 8 Page 47 Place adverbs, manner adverbs
1. Study the vocabulary on page 47. Review expressions "Comment ça va?" "Ça va bien." "Ça va mal." 2. Make up sentences with "He plays, "I play," We play," plus the adverbs for together, alone, badly, slowly, etc.
3. Play a game: One person sings a song (O Canada, or "Voici Noël"). The other person directs in French: "Sing quickly." "Sing slowly." "Sing badly." "Let's sing together." "Sing alone."

Day Page 48 Using place adverbs correctly 
Fill in the blanks!

Day 10 Page 49 Answering questions with adverbs

Day 11 Page 50 Time agreement of verbs with adverbs (present or near future)
1. Verb review first! Present tense of -er and -re verbs, and irregular verbs, especially aller. Use aller to indicate futur proche.
2. Go through the exercise, noting only which sentences require present tense and which ones require futur proche.
3. Go through the sentences again, conjugating the verbs.

Day 12 Page 51 Using near future when expressing an upcoming event with "dans" 
1. Review present tense of aller
2. Practice these types of sentences orally. When are you going to send your Christmas cards? I am going to send my cards in a week. When are you going to telephone your grandmother? I am going to phone her in an hour.  When are we going to open our gifts? We are going to open them on Christmas day.
3. Do the workbook page.
4. Watch Sol and the Christmas Tree:  OR  Choose an episode of Arthur to watch in French on Youtube.(search for Arthur and Diminou--Diminou is D.W.)